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Методическое пособие «Means of expressing future actions»
Содержание - Иностранные языки
03.02.2020 15:29

Амбалова Наталья Хасанбековна, учитель английского языка ГБОУ СОШ №8 г.Беслан, РСО-Алания. 
Пособие предназначено для учащихся старших классов средней школы. 
Теоретический материал дает полное представление о грамматической теме Future, помогает видеть ее во всем многообразии и верно употребить в речевой ситуации или в заданиях теста.

 


Методическое пособие.

MEANS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE ACTIONS

Основные понятия и термины: 

The Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense. The Future Indefinite- in-the-Past. The Future Continuous Tense. The Future Continuous- in-the-past. 

The Future Perfect Tense. The Future Perfect-in-the-Past. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense. The Future Perfect Continuous-in-the-Past. 

Краткое изложение теоретических вопросов 

Means of Expressing Future Actions 

I. The Future Indefinite is used: 

shall 

                                        +   V1 

will 

1. To express a decision or intention often made at the moment of speaking, that is not planned or premeditated (i.e. a spontaneous action)  

         e.g. – Wait a minute! Could you give Anne a message from me? 

  • Sure! I will probably see her at the meeting. 
  • Leave the washing up – I’ll do it later. 

2. To predict the future or to say what we think will happen

e.g. He won’t pass his examination. 

  a) In  object clauses – after verbs (and their equivalents) expressing personal views and  opinions: 

        to be afraid, to believe, to be sure, to doubt, to expect, to have no doubt, to hope, to  imagine, to know, to suppose, to suspect, to think, to wonder and the like. 

   e.g. I believe that inflation will fall to 5 per cent next year. 

   b) In object clauses introduced by the conjunctions when and if to denote future actions. It occurs in reported speech and the object clause doesn’t contain any condition. 

       e.g. I don’t know (what?) when (if) she will come. 

   c) With adverbs of course, probably, perhaps, certainly to denote actions whose realization is uncertain, doubtful or merely supposed. 

e.g. Perhaps, I will see you tomorrow. Of course, he will send you a letter in a few days. 

3. With stative verbs the Future Indefinite is used to express any actions referring to the future, without any restrictions. 

    e.g. She will know the truth soon. We shall have some news for you. 

4. In passive constructions. 

    e.g. She will be paid in cash. 

5. In the principal clause of a complex sentence with a clause of time, condition and concession. 

    e.g. We will talk about it whenever he comes. 

6. To make statements of a fact about the future. 

    e.g. I’ll be forty next month. 

7. In formal (official) English it is used to speak about definite future plans, to make announcements. 

e.g. Prime Minister: “The government will lower taxes, and I ensure that every family in this  country will benefit.” The wedding will take place at St. Andrew’s on May 21st. 

8. To talk about now. 

    e.g. Don’t phone her now. She will be busy. 

9. To express: 

    – a single point action in the future; 

    – a succession of actions in the future; 

    – recurrent future actions; 

    – an action occupying a whole period of time in the future; 

    – some permanent future actions. 

10. When the time of realization of an action is indefinite or when its realization is remote. 

      e.g. We shall meet again one day. He will never sell his cottage. 

11. Note the use of the Future Indefinite in the following stereotyped sentences: 

     e.g. That’ll do No good will come of it.  You’ll go far.  It will do you a lot of good. Well,  we’ll see. I’ll ask you to excuse me. You’ll excuse me, madam. 

II. The Future Indefinite–in–the–Past 

should 

                                +   V1 

would 

    e.g. He was sure I should get the job. 

III. The Future Continuous 

shall

                     +Ving

Will

1. To talk about something which will be in progress at a definite future moment. 

e.g. I will be watching TV at 6 o’clock tomorrow. 

2. To express an action, which the speaker expects to take place in the future in the natural course of events, independently of the will or intention of anyone directly concerned. 

e.g. Come on deck! We shall be entering harbour in a few minutes. 

3. For planned actions (with this meaning will be doing is similar to am doing)  

e.g. I am going to the city centre later (immediate future) I will be going to the city centre later (not–so–immediate future, a more distant future) We are meeting tomorrow (we have arranged to meet tomorrow, we have fixed the date of our meeting) We will be meeting tomorrow (in the natural course of events; either because we work together,  or because we attend classes together, or regularly play some game at the same place or at the  same time, etc.)  

4. To ask about people’s plans, especially when we want something or want someone to do something and we don’t want to change the other person’s plans. 

e.g. – Will you be using your computer tonight? – No, you may use it. 

5. For polite inquiries. 

e.g.  Will you be staying long in Minsk? 

IV. The Future Continuous–in–the–Past 

should + be + V ing would 

e.g. He said he would be seeing her that evening at the Kennedys. 

V. The Future Perfect 

shall  

                              + have + V3  

will 

The Markers: 

by (by the time, by the end of the week),  next year,  in a week,  before,  when

To talk about something that will be completed by a certain time in the future. 

e.g.  She will have left for work before the children get home from school. I will have finished the translation by 5 o’clock. 

 

VI. The Future Perfect in– the– Past 

should  

                              + have + V3  

would 

The Markers: 

by (by the time, by the end of the week), next year, in a week, before, when 

e.g. I was afraid that he would have started off by the time I got to the coast. 

 

VII. The Future Perfect Continuous 

shall  

+ have been + V ing  

will 

The Markers: 

 by (by the time, by the end of the week), next year, in a week, in autumn. 

Describes a continuous action, which will begin before a definite moment in the future, will continue up to it and will be going on at the moment. 

e.g. I’ll have been sleeping for two hours by the time he gets home. 

In September they’ll have been building their cottage for 3 years. 

 

VIII. The Future Perfect Continuous in –the– Past 

should 

                              +  have been  + V ing 

would 

The Markers: 

 by (by the time, by the end of the week), next year, in a week, in autumn

e.g. He said that in May he would have been studying at the Faculty of pre–university education for 8 months. 

 

IX. The Present Simple 

1. Talk about fixed future events and actions which are certain to take place according to a timetable, programme, calendar, schedule, command or arrangement worked out for a person or persons officially (flights, arrivals, departures, itineraries)  In this case the sentence usually contains an  indication of time. 

e.g.  The plane takes off at 10.   Can you tell me what time the game starts today, please? Our tourist group sleep at the Globo hotel this night and start for Berlin tomorrow morning.  (according to the itinerary) 

2. It is used in subordinate clauses of time, condition and concession instead of the Future Indefinite Tense. These clauses may be introduced by the conjunctions: 

  – of time: ( while, when, till/until, before, after, once, as :soon as, unless ) 

  – of condition: ( if, on condition (that), provided (that), providing (that), in case, as long as ) 

  – of concession: ( even if, even though, no matter how, whenever, whatever, however, etc.) 

     In such cases we usually find the Future Indefinite, or modal verbs, or the Imperative Mood in the principal clause. 

e.g. Will you wait while I look through the manuscript? 

          But I must have the doctor handy, in case she feels worse.  

(However in object clauses introduced by the conjunctions when  and if it is the Future Indefinite that is used to denote future actions (I don’t know (what?) when she will come) It occurs in reported speech and the object clause doesn’t contain a condition)  

3. In object clauses after to see (to), to take care, to make sure, to be sure: 

e.g. He will make sure, that no harm comes to her. 

4. The use of the Present Simple with reference to the immediate future is structurally dependent in some special questions. 

e.g. What do we do next?  =  Что будем сейчас делать? 

               What happens next?   Что сейчас  будет? 

5. Make suggestions:         

   e.g. Why don’t you join us? 

X. The Past Simple  –  denotes future actions viewed from the past. 

e.g. Mother took care that I held myself well. 

 

XI. The Present Continuous 

1. Denotes future arrangements planned by a person. 

e.g. We are seeing ‘Romeo and Juliet’ tonight. I am getting married next week and we are  having a traditional wedding. I am meeting my manager tomorrow. When are you   leaving for London? 

2. Denotes future continuous actions in subordinate clauses of time, condition and  concession instead  of the Future Continuous. 

e.g. If I am sleeping when you come, wake me up. 

 

XII. The Past Continuous – denotes future actions viewed from the past. 

e.g. She wrote that she was coming back in a fortnight. 

 

XIII. The Present Perfect III – is used in subordinate clauses of time to denote a future action  which will be accomplished before the action of the principal clause (which is usually expressed by the Future Indefinite)  

e.g. She will come (the 2nd action) home as soon as she has finished (the 1st action) her work. 

 

XIV. The Past Perfect III –  denotes a future action viewed from the past in adverbial clauses of  time introduced by when, before, after, as soon as, till/until. It shows that the action of the subordinate clause will be completed before the action of the principal clause, which is usually expressed by the Future–in–the–Past. It is found only in reported speech. 

e.g. She said that she would come home as soon as she had finished her work. 

                                   (the 2nd action)                                (the 1st action) 

He did a Master’s degree to apply for a managerial post when he had graduated. 

 

XV. To be going to do something 

1. It is an idiomatic expression, which is used to express a future plan, decision or intention made before the moment of speaking (premeditated intention)  

e.g. – Why are you putting on those old clothes? – I’m going to paint the kitchen. 

2. We can use to be going to do sth to make predictions based on what we can see (i.e. we know that something will happen because of information in the present)  

  e.g. Look at that beautiful sunshine! It is going to be a nice day. 

         Be  careful! You are going to break that glass. 

        It’s 8 o’clock – you are going to be late again. It is going to snow later tonight. 

 

XVI. Modal verb “to be to” 

  • – duties: I am to go back at once. 

       – obligation, resulting from an arrangement or plan: Who is to be the first? 

  • – orders and instructions, which are to be carried out in the future: 

          Tom, you are not to talk like that in front of the child. 

       – strict prohibitions (only in the negative form): You are not to smoke in this room. 

  • – impossibility: They aren’t to be trusted. 

       – something that is destined to happen or is unavoidable:  

         If we are to be neighbours for life we should be on friendly terms (если нам предстоит…) He didn’t know that he was to become a famous scientist (…ему суждено было стать…) If we are to get there on time, we must start at once. (Если мы хотим…) 

– set expressions with “to be to”: 

  • Что мне делать?   
  • = Что со мной будет? 
  • = Куда мне деваться? 

 

XVII. Modal verb “will” 

–  willingness, intention, wish: 

  I’ll do what I can. We shall be delighted if you will lunch with us (modal meaning)   

–  offer: – I need some money.  – Don’t worry. I’ll lend you some. 

–  promise: Thank you for lending me the money. I’ll pay you back on Friday. 

–  supposition: The telephone rang. “That will be your mother,” Jenny said to her husband.   (Это, повидимому, твоя мать.) 

– request: Will you ask her to ring me back? 

– determination to perform  an action I’ll come with you, Barbara. 

– refusal to perform an action: I won’t argue with  you. My car won’t start. 

         - invitation: Won’t you sit down?Won’t you partake of it?  

         (Не хотите ли отведать это?) 

command (with the 2nd and the 3rd person): You will come here tomorrow. 

 

XVIII.  Modal verb “shall” 

– ask for advice:    Oh, Alex, what shall we do? 

– to make offers:     Shall I help you? 

– to make suggestions:    Shall we go out this evening? 

– promise:    You shall have my answer tomorrow. 

threat or warning: He shall have a scandal. He shall have the worst scandal there has been in London for years. 

asking for permission:  Shall I read? (Do, please! Don’t, please!)  Who shall answerthe telephone, Major? 

 

XIX. To be about to (refers to the immediate future): 

e.g. I wasabouttomake a dashforit! Hurryup! Thefilmisjustabouttostart. 

 

XX. To be due to (often refers to timetables): 

e.g. Don’tbesoimpatient! Sheisn’tduetoarriveuntilteatime. The train is due to come at 5.